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As one degree is approximately 72 years, Amao has a transition period between ages of years. Many astrologers find ages too erratic based on either the vernal point moving through the randomly sized zodiacal constellations or sidereal zodiac and, instead, round all astrological ages to exactly years each. Based on precession of the equinoxes, there is a one-degree shift approximately every 72 years, so a degree movement requires years to complete. An established school of thought that an age is also influenced by the sign opposite to the one of the astrological age.

Referring back to the precession of the Equinoxes, as the Sun crosses one constellation in the Northern Hemisphere's spring Equinox March 21 , it will cross the opposite sign in the spring Equinox in the Southern Hemisphere September For instance, the Age of Pisces is complemented by its opposite astrological sign of Virgo the Virgin ; so a few refer to the Piscean age as the 'Age of Pisces-Virgo'. Ray Grasse also claims that each sign of the zodiac is involving with the opposite sign.

William Sullivan in The Secret of the Incas claims there is a direct connection between the history of the Inca Empire and precession of the equinoxes. The great demarcation point in the history of the astrological ages is around BC when the Greek astronomer-astrologer Hipparchus from observation discovered that the great immovable sphere of fixed stars was not fixed but slowly moving eastwards due to what is now known as precession of the equinoxes. It is possible that some other astronomers before Hipparchus had also noticed the phenomenon, but it is Hipparchus who is credited with this discovery.

This discovery by Hipparchus is not entirely unexpected as Hipparchus is considered to have been the greatest observational astronomer in his time and up until Tycho Brahe in the 16th century AD. What is highly contentious in modern times is the claim by many that observation of the effects of precession of the equinoxes was known well before the time of Hipparchus and his contemporaries in Greece or even Mesopotamia.

The academic answer is no — precession of the equinoxes was unknown in earlier times. It was an attempt to marry science and mythology that had become separated by the ancient Greeks. Santillana and von Dechend believed that the old mythological stories handed down from antiquity were not random fictitious tales but were accurate depictions of celestial cosmology clothed in tales to aid their oral transmission. The chaos, monsters, and violence in ancient myths are representative of the forces that shape each age.

They believed that ancient myths are the remains of preliterate astronomy that became lost with the rise of the Greco-Roman civilization. Santillana and von Dechend state that ancient myths have no historical basis but a cosmological one based on a primitive form of astrology. They recognized the importance of the heliacally rising constellation as markers for the astrological ages and claimed that knowledge of this phenomenon had been known for thousands of years previously.

They claim that to understand ancient thinking it is necessary to understand astrology, not the modern sun-sign or horoscopic astrology, but the astrology of ancient times which was the lingua franca of ancient times. They go further and state that our knowledge of the dawn of astrology and its relationship to ancient myths and star names is limited, and only extends back to about BC, which was during the Renaissance of Sumerian Culture; we are not able, they say, to examine older material on the subject. In Hamlet's Mill it is claimed that the ancient Greeks knew of three successive destructions that correlate to three ages, and that since the beginning of history the vernal point has moved through Taurus, Aries, and Pisces.

Hesiod in Works and Days refers to five successive ages. As early as , modern researchers were examining evidence for knowledge of precession of the equinoxes and astrological ages before Hipparchus. Drummond expounds on his hypothesis that a greater part of the Hebrew Scriptures are merely allegorical writings that hide the true content. Furthermore, the Orientalists were mainly concerned with astronomy and most of their ancient myths are really disguised astronomical records.

Drummond makes his case that at the time of Abraham , the Amorites first recorded the shift from the Age of Taurus to the Age of Aries as represented by the year commencing with the Ram Aries rather than the bull Taurus.

The Book of Joshua indicates that by the time of Moses the equinoxes had already shifted from Taurus to Aries , as Moses had ordained that the civil year should commence with the month of Nisan Aries rather than the month of Taurus. The feast of the Passover is probably a celebration of the Age of Aries with the Paschal Lamb representative of Aries, traditionally associated with the symbol of the ram or sheep.

Drummond also hypothesizes that most number references in ancient texts were coded to hide their real value by multiples of 1, For example, in the Old Testament Joshua commanded 30, men, and he slew 12, inhabitants of the city of Ai. The historian Berosus stated the Babylonians commenced astronomical observations 49, years 7 x 7 x before Alexander the Great.

The problem of understanding the exact nature of ancient astrology is that it was only partly documented, leaving the question of the extent of their undocumented astrological knowledge. Michael Baigent in From the Omens of Babylon: Astrology and Ancient Mesopotamia suggests that there is evidence that there was probably an older or parallel oral tradition of astrology at the time of publication of Enuma Anu Enlil [35] believed published over the period — BC.

The ancient Mesopotamians believed that history repeated itself after a massive cycle of many years. In the early post- Hipparchus period, two schools of thought developed about the slow shift of the fixed sphere of stars as discovered by Hipparchus. One school believed that at 1 degree shift per years, the sphere of fixed stars would return to its starting point after 36, years.

The trepidation school believed that the fixed stars first moved one way, then moved the other way - similar to a giant pendulum. It was believed that the 'swinging' stars first moved 8 degrees one direction, then reversed this 8 degrees travelling the other direction. In the 5th century AD, the Greek Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus mentions that both theories were being discussed. The Indians around the 5th century AD preferred the trepidation theory but because they had observed the movement of the fixed stars by 25 degrees since ancient times since around BC , they considered that trepidation swung back and forth around 27 degrees.

The significant early exponent of the 'circular 36,' years method was Ptolemy and, due to the status placed upon Ptolemy by later scholars, the Christian and Muslim astronomers of the Middle Ages accepted the Great Year of 36, years rather than trepidation. However some scholars gave credence to both theories based on the addition of another sphere which is represented in the Alfonsine tables produced by the Toledo School of Translators in the 12th and 13th centuries.

The Alfonsine tables computed the positions of the sun, moon, and planets relative to the fixed stars. The Italian astronomer Cecco d'Ascoli , professor of astrology at the University of Bologna in the early 14th century, continued to have faith in trepidation but believed it swung 10 degrees in either direction. Copernicus refers to trepidation in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium published in Though the one degree per hundred years calculated for precession of the equinoxes as defined by Hipparchus and promulgated by Ptolemy was too slow, another rate of precession that was too fast also gained popularity in the 1st millennium AD.

By the fourth century AD, Theon of Alexandria [38] assumed a changing rate trepidation of one degree per 66 years. The tables of the Shah Zij-i Shah [39] originate in the sixth century, but are unfortunately lost, but many later Arabic and Persian astronomers and astrologers refer to them and also use this value. These later astronomers-astrologers or sources include: There exists evidence that the modern calendar developed by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century AD commencing with the birth of Jesus Christ at AD 1 was influenced by precession of the equinoxes and astrological ages. Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years Diocletian persecuted Christians with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world.

At the time it was believed that the Resurrection and end of the world would occur years after the birth of Jesus. The current Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament. It was believed that based on the Anno Mundi calendar Jesus was born in the year or years after the world was created with the year of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi approximately AD was thus equated with the resurrection of Christ and the end of the world. He was heavily influenced by ancient cosmology, in particular the doctrine of the Great Year that places a strong emphasis on planetary conjunctions.

This doctrine says that when all the planets were in conjunction that this cosmic event would mark the end of the world. Dionysius accurately calculated that this conjunction would occur in May AD Dionysius then applied another astronomical timing mechanism based on precession of the equinoxes.

Though incorrect, some oriental astronomers at the time believed that the precessional cycle was 24, years which included twelve astrological ages of 2, years each. Dionysius believed that if the planetary alignment marked the end of an age i. He therefore deducted 2, years from the May conjunction to produce AD 1 [44] for the incarnation of Christ.

The 15th century Italian Renaissance philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola published a massive attack on astrological predictions, but he did not object to all of astrology and he commented on the position of the vernal point in his day. Pico was aware of the effects of precession of the equinoxes and knew that the first point of Aries no longer existed in the constellation of Aries. Pico not only knew that the vernal point had shifted back into Pisces , he stated that in his time, the vernal point zero degrees tropical Aries was located at 2 degrees sidereal Pisces.

This suggests that by whatever method of calculation he was employing, Pico expected the vernal point to shift into sidereal Aquarius age years later as a one degree shift takes 72 years. The Earth, in addition to its diurnal daily rotation upon its axis and annual rotation around the Sun, incurs a precessional motion involving a slow periodic shift of the axis itself: This motion, which is caused mostly by the Moon's gravity , gives rise to the precession of the equinoxes in which the Sun's position on the ecliptic at the time of the vernal equinox, measured against the background of fixed stars, gradually changes with time.

In graphical terms, the Earth behaves like a spinning top, and tops tend to wobble as they spin. The spin of the Earth is its daily diurnal rotation. The spinning Earth slowly wobbles over a period slightly less than 26, years. From our perspective on Earth, the stars are ever so slightly 'moving' from west to east at the rate of one degree approximately every 72 years. One degree is about twice the diameter of the Sun or Moon as viewed from Earth. The easiest way to notice this slow movement of the stars is at any fixed time each year. The most common fixed time is at the vernal equinox around 21 March each year.

The precession of the equinoxes occurs because of solar, lunar and planetary gravity on the earth's equatorial bulge lunisolar and planetary precessions. Precession renders the earth to spin like a top: If the obliquity were zero, there would be no seasonal change during each year. The precession of the equinoxes causes the shifting zodiac position of the seasons. The Earth's precession, orbit and position are continually being affected: Though these slight variances affect a planet's rotation and movement, determinations by simple fixed constants for general precession rates, for precession in longitude, and for physical star movement, of the zodiac signs at the vernal equinox, are fully sufficient over the year period involved.

At this point in time, the effects of precession over time yield significantly different positions than those held by Western astrology. This thirty degree differential is accurate to within one degree, the precision required in most astrological artifacts. Note that with any more westward precession, the actual zodiac sign on the vernal equinox will have changed from Pisces to Aquarius, the Age of Aquarius.

Beyond the simple observable truth that Western astrology determines positions by factitious means, there are three critical self-contradictions within Western astrology. First, Ptolemy neglected to incorporate the precession of the equinoxes into his astrological catechism, though, through Hipparchus, he was aware of its effect. Although Ptolemy defined the vernal equinox to nearly accurate positions of his time, when he fixed this location of the equinox zodiac position, the zodiac constellations became, increasingly over time, factitious signs.

His failure to incorporate precession is understandable—did he think his system and records would be in use two thousand years later when precession was relevant? Second, current arguments say that Aries, the first sign, represents the new, fresh beginning of Spring, with its expansion and growth into Summer, and hence, must mark the vernal equinox.

But this ignores the fact that on each vernal equinox, in the Southern Hemisphere, the equinox marks the beginning of Autumn, the end of Summer, and the coming contraction in Winter. Nonetheless, even on the basis of claiming to prefer their methods because of the seasonal nature of the year, this very physical phenomenon, the seasons, is caused by the very set of physical circumstances, obliquity and precession, which the Western methods failed to incorporate. The precession of the equinoxes and obliquity cause the seasons. Their movements are related by a perpendicular and are not the same.

By making seasonal arguments and marking the year according to the natural seasons, Western astrology should necessarily incorporate the shift of the zodiac sign on the equinox to reflect the scientific fact of precession, the causation of the annual seasonal cycle. Second, Western astrologers contradict themselves by their use of precessed positions or methods in other instances. Some examples are given. Firstly, Western astrologers are proud to announce that we are on the brink of the Age of Aquarius.

Secondly, Western astrologers create their artifacts to otherwise reflect the obliquity of the ecliptic. The axial components of charts, principally, the perpendicular angle between the subject chart's ascendant and midheaven, reflect the practice that the midheaven is usually determined with respect to the actual angularity relative of the input subject's location on Earth to the ecliptic, not the equator.

Here, prior art is accurate, though its signs are not. Thirdly, Western astrology books and information sources routinely represent, use or make use of representations, that the physical constellations underlie as foundation and causes of astrological phenomena. Included often are illustrations suggesting the determination of planetary positions from the empirically observable positions of such within the physical constellations ringing the zodiac.

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Yet, actual positions in the zodiac regions are never shown concurrent with their factitious zodiac signs. These astrologers frequently cite the precession of the equinoxes as crux of the fundament of their methods for the determination of positions: This is supposed to make the positions adjusted for precession since the ancient times. This differential is termed, in vedic parlance, the ayanamsa, and is alleged by Hindu, vedic and sidereal astrologers to be the correct, precession adjustment for the correction over time from the Western tropical positions.

There are many slightly differing numbers on the applicable degree adjustment, but all Eastern sources place the correct ayanamsa between 19 and 25 degrees, with all of the leading references quoting a figure of between 23 and 24 degrees for present day. It is worth remarking that variation occurs in the angle of obliquity over a lengthy 41,year cycle, but never by more than a few degrees in either direction, such that the present angle, about Thus, the variation across the degree estimations of the ayanamsa by leading Eastern experts also belies the fact that this astrological method identifies and adjusts by the angle of obliquity.

However, it is the degrees of general precession, appropriately in ecliptic systems, the precession in longitude, that correctly defines the adjustment from the Western positions. As additional proofs, the actual degrees of precession since the time of Hipparchus can be approximated using Newcomb's constant for precession in longitude The result is The Eastern ayanamsa is not set to Ptolemy c. Since the amount of precession, the ayanamsa, from the Western zodiac signs and positions, is now a 30 degree subtraction, a real and substantial imprecision results when using Eastern methods. All Eastern and Western signs of the zodiac, listed for calendar dates of signs and sign changes, are in error.

All calculations of Eastern and Western component positions, to degree, are in error. Ronnie Dreyer claims as fact that the vernal equinox, Mar. Hence the invention's methods help here. Vedic astrology's purposes tend to be focused on the spiritual enlightenment of the inquiring subject, much as the New Age astrology directs inquiry. Vedic astrology can be shown to share mainly similarities to the practiced Western astrology, for instance, twelve zodiac signs, twelve houses, ascendant, sun and planets usu. Vedic Hindu astrologers do not create a circular astrology chart like their Western counterparts.

Rather they form a box square of twelve house units, some with an open middle. Thus, rather than a circle, the zodiac is pictured within a box. Some siderealists use a circular chart. The third form of astrology, Chinese, is based on a cycle of twelve animals, each being designated a year of regency in continuing order. Each animal has been attributed characteristics, with differences among any one animal type being further describable by element category. There are five elements: All astrological forms have two polarities: Chinese astrology shares Western and Eastern astrological formats in that it has twelve signs, with each animal therefore often held as corresponding to the one of the twelve zodiac signs and constellations.

Chinese astrology emphasizes lunar position, in fact unlike Western and Eastern tropical year, Gregorian calendars, the Chinese method is based on lunar calendar cycles of 60 years generated from the five twelve-year animal variations. The Chinese animals are lunar signs, in contrast to Western emphasis on a solar sign. Unlike Eastern astrology, which fully corresponds to Western astrology, but with different names and artifact designs, Chinese astrology is focused on a reduced set of astrological components, principally the lunar sign, specified by animal and element, and the ascendant sign, also one of the twelve animals, determined by the time of day in which the subject is born, with each sign affixed with 2 of 24 hours per day.

The lunar sign is held to hold import for the course of one's life; the ascendant reflects personality. Chinese astrology places great weight upon the balance of elements present in each subject's case. The preferable disposition has a representation by each of the elements, as the sixty different lunar years and ascendant lunar sign, etc.

In the absence of balanced representation within the subject profile, the Chinese recommendation is to compensate and balance by evocative naming or a marriage or partnership which add vital elements. Chinese astrology describes the animals and elements at play in an individual life and in one's relationships with others.

Each lunar animal sign is given a month of the year, enabling the Western and Eastern zodiac sun sign systems a tropical year is equinox to equinox to be connected and reflected in the Chinese astrological form. Each animal year also has two elements: The Chinese form is based on a lunar calendar, institutionalized by Emperor Huang Ti, c. It is an agrarian calendar system, claimed to be based on and to reflect the annual seasons and growth cycles. At first glance, it might seem odd that the first animal lunar sign, the Rat, is found corresponding to the calendar dates, November 22 nd -December 21 st.

Under Western astrology, this same set of dates is held to be under the solar sign of Sagittarius. Remembering precession, this same period is, per invention, under the sign of Scorpio. How can this be proven? In the year BC, the vernal equinox would have been in the sign of Taurus. Under this Taurus sun, the first full moon is found in its opposite sign, Scorpio. Hence, the first lunar sign, commensurate with the start of the seasons and growing cycles in BC, is the Rat, corresponding to the invention's solar sign of Scorpio and to its current calendar dates, November 22 nd -December 21 st.

The list of animal ascendants for the time of day also seems arcane. This can be explained, again, via precession, and without this effect in explication, neither the ascendant by hours or solar date correspondences between Chinese animals and zodiac signs have any logical basis which reconcile these relations. The Chinese calendar, while focused on the seasons, and hence, its first lunar sign animal is to be found on the vernal equinox, actually begins about the end of January each year.

In the year BC, the Sun, then, would have been in the sign of Pisces. The Sun and ascendant are identical at sun-up. Sun-up in China then would occur in the period, 7 A. This sign, by the Chinese form, has had the present solar dates, March 21 st -April 19 th , when the Sun by invention has been in the zodiac sign of Pisces. This section has so far examined the zodiac positions of components used in astrological artifacts and as information, showing where and how the three prior art astrological forms are factitious or in error.

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Recalling Webster's definition of astrology, the astrological profile is developed from positions and aspects. The positions are the primary artifacts of information which must be determined. Once the component positions are known with accuracy, then the aspects between components are found and identified, as a secondary matter. To the aid of Western, Eastern and Chinese astrologers, in their determination of the component positions, is a dedicated reference resource, termed an ephemeris.

Now, an astrologer's ephemeris shows the positions of sun, moon and planets by zodiac sign and degree one of thirty per sign , per Western methods. Uniformly, Western references and resources do not contain the invention's positions by sign and to degree for any of the astrological components, for or at any and all of the various epochs for which their positions and component data are given. This is not to assert that prior art astrological ephemerides, aspectarians, reference resources and computer programs do not perform an accurate form of astrometry.

The prior art data in ephemerides, book of houses, or as obtained from prior art astrology programs and books can be made per invention after appropriate adjustment. With astronomer's positional data, the data is in formats, either, a not otherwise known and used by astrologers, such as by right ascension and declination, or by local apparent sidereal time, etc.

In short, the astrologer's reference format requires the components' ecliptic coordinate positions to be given by zodiac sign and often, by the degree of 30 within the sign. As an example of a prior art astrological ephemeris, see Parker's Astrology. Julia and Derek Parker. Compare the information on March , page , with that of an astronomer's ephemeris which meets the format per astrology, see The Complete Planetary Ephemeris for to AD. For instance, on March 7 th , , the Sun is listed in the astrology ephemeris at Pisces These, and all the data for the given solar, lunar and planetary components in every epoch, are similar.

The reason is essentially identical to that previously discussed: Other types of ephemeris positional data of the astronomer, whether epochs are given by civil calendar or by Julian date, such as the right ascension and declination, geocentric rectangular coordinates, transit times, or in greenwich or local sidereal times, typically do not indicate the zodiac sign expressly, but instead, list positions in hours and minutes. An exception, also found on astronomers' planetarium programs, is when the right ascension is listed by zodiac sign and degree, though unless the conversion to longitude is then effected, the degree cited is misleading as it is in equatorial coordinates.

For instance, on Mar. If an unwitting astrologer were to use this data, thinking it was Western form, the amount of error over one degree would be unacceptable for some astrological purposes and artifacts. To use this data, a trigonometric equation for coordinate transformation is required to render the right ascension into the precise longitude. Most astronomy data for component positions are not listed by the signs and degrees. This standard has thirteen non-uniform, unequal zodiac signs the twelve traditional signs, plus Ophiuchus.

For the purposes of astrology and planetary astronomy, the reliance upon twelve zodiac signs is both logical and apparent. The use of thirteen odd, non-uniform, sky regions is a burden on a novice. Also, the insertion of Ophiuchus, between Scorpio and Sagittarius, is argued for based on the ecliptic's path, and change to it, but a visual, non-grid perspective on the ecliptic's current movement in that region does not necessarily convince one of this need.

The use of twelve is the civil calendar standard of months, driven by the seasons, and reflects the long-standing and well-developed lore pursuant to astrological inquiry and understanding. All major forms of astrology utilize a twelve sign convention.

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  • Astronomers may have no need to change their ephemerides to reflect precession, as their data needs not bear any astrological significance. If anything concrete is driving astrological phenomena, it is the actual, physical zodiac star sign constellations along the ecliptic. The synodic month, At the vernal equinox, the Sun crosses north over the equator. Time, specifically, the duration of a second, is the most accurately measured unit known, though many of its properties are unknown.

    The principal time standard in astrological use today is Greenwich Mean Time GMT , established as the world's official time. The meridian through the Greenwich Observatory was designated as the prime meridian. Astronomical measurements were used to mark GMT local time; other time zones added or subtracted a related number of hours. Astronomical and astrological ephemerides, data and artifacts were, and still are, honed to GMT specifications. Modern time-keepers, however, no longer use astronomical time. Instead, the current official world time standard derives off of International Atomic Time TAI , and is termed, Coordinated Universal Time UTC , this being based off multiple coordinated atomic clocks located around the globe and in space.

    A single blended, refined value originates from a scientific center near Paris. Universal Time is used in astrological and astronomical data, usually having the Greenwich meridian. While small distinctions result and are required for the various time standard used, conversions exist in references for the manipulation between these time formats, between the coordinate systems, and between these two sets of structures.

    Thus, there are no existent barriers to the transformation or rendering of any given set of accurate data values into or from astrological component positions, specified per invention, for instance, by zodiac sign and degree, incorporating and displaying the position, properly and accurately accounted for precession. Coordinate systems have two defining features—the origin of the coordinate perspective and the referential planes of spherical coordinates. Spherical coordinates in astrological references today show position by celestial longitude and latitude, ecliptic coordinates, standardized by Ptolemy, based on Hipparchus.

    Astronomy today uses mainly right ascension and declination of the equatorial coordinate system or of the three-dimensional rectangular coordinates X, Y, Z and R. The Surya Siddhanta, the canon of Hindu astronomy, named each twelfth of the circumference with similar zodiac constellations. These markings and assignations remain unchanged today, except, as mentioned previously, under the IAU thirteen constellation delineations. Exact physical description and positions of the zodiacal stars and constellation mapping outlines are available from prior art.

    Positions of the sun, moon and planets used to proceed from direct observation. Now, ephemerides are generated using sophisticated algorithms. However, high precision determination of positions is achieved via planetary radar astronomy. Regardless of means, sound, accurate data are feasible. Hipparchus' own data erred by 0. In practiced astrology, the precision of positional data may not need to meet the extreme fineness of the astrophysicist. Much of astrology rests on the general sign involved, with the degree then being very relevant in determining the accurate sign and in exactly measuring for aspectations.

    Chinese, and to some extent Eastern, avoid degree specification altogether. In Western astrology, specification to the degree is necessary for axial and house data, for quick moving planets, and for determining interplanetary aspects within degrees of orb.

    Critically, the sign must be uniformly correct without exception, the degree accurate. It is in the interest of the invention's usage to address specifically certain estimates and conversions which are essential to the implementation of methodological, celestial and technical systems, apparatuses, resources, references, data and astrological artifacts, these astro-physical mechanics and computations revealing, confirming and correcting the nature and magnitude of error in the prior art galaxy of the astrology industry.

    This technical excursion covers the criteria and factors that shape context and data of the invention's astrology. The point marking and ordering the coordinate positions of astrology's components on the zodiac belt, along the ecliptic's path and throughout the course of time, for zodiac sign astrologers and astronomers alike, is the vernal equinox. This point, defined at the ecliptic's northerly crossing of the equator, has the unique property, that at that point, this position, whether expressed in the ecliptic coordinates of astrologers and planetary astronomers, as celestial longitude by zodiac sign and degree and latitude respective the ecliptic or in equatorial coordinates of right ascension as hours or by sign and declination respective the equator , has the same values, namely, zero, i.

    These two coordinate systems converge and are set here. Thus, one same and identical figure can relate the precession at the equinoxes to both systems, and to other systems, eg. X, Y, Z and R rectangular one. Also, it enables the amount of general precession at the vernal equinox to be implemented in both systems via the identical, single amount in degrees 30 of This amount elapsed over time, at that position, is relevant to astrological improvement.

    It allows one simple adjustment factor and value at the vernal equinox. It is estimated and is approached below in a variety of ways. The relation between ecliptic and equatorial coordinates is satisfied by any of several different equalities for any point and at any time, but the simplest for use herein, is their relation characterized as see, Explanatory Supplement of the Ephemeris. Confirming this relation, for Apr. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C8, shows the Sun's apparent right ascension as 1 h 54 m After converting hours into degrees 15 degrees per hour , etc. As mentioned, except as at the equinoxes, the two coordinates systems do not post the same position for components at the same point in time.

    For example, the planetary astronomers' ephemeris, The Complete Planetary Ephemeris for to AD , Hieratic Publishing, MA, , shown earlier to have longitude data identical in form and values as astrologers' ephemerides, has however, any component at any date specified by both ecliptic and equatorial coordinates. But, unless one knows the difference and relations between these coordinate systems, as well as knowing that astrologers' ephemerides quote positions in celestial longitude, not right ascension, which they do not generally specify, then any astrologer choosing to use astronomers' references may select the errant data set.

    For, in the absence of instruction, both quoted values for the Sun are in the terminology used by astrologers. Moreover, while there is a single value for both systems to calibrate the vernal equinox correctly, the annual rate of general precession is not equivalent or identical to the annual rate of precession in right ascension. Multiplied by the years, BC to AD, gives a total general precession at the vernal equinox of This amount supports the figure estimated earlier, However, if one simply applies the annual precession in right ascension, 0.

    This is not the full and correct value appropriate, but by incorporating the precession in declination, 0. While other precise methods exist to compute estimates for the general precession of the equinoxes over time, there are qualifying comments made here. Any date being called back to, ie. Because the ancient catalogues recorded the positions of stars and planets with low accuracy, this data denies high precision statement.

    Personal preference on precision, or dates, is reasonably accommodated. Approximation by ecliptic precessional elements is also viable, or as by the reduction of equatorial rectangular coordinates for listing of equatorial or ecliptic precessional elements, and on precession, see Explanatory Supplement of the Ephemeris , by the H.

    Nautical Almanac Office, London, , pp. These stars begin the constellation, Aries, but are separated themselves by about 0. See Dictionary of Astronomical Names. Nonetheless, this physical object definition of the vernal equinox, existent and accurate then, serves to provide a means to estimate the elapsed general precession of the equinoxes. Recalling that general precession is, to The star, Alpha Arietis, a. Recalling that Hipparchus' variance in error on measurements was about one degree, and that the rate of annual precession in declination is 0.

    See Apparent Places of Fundamental Stars Using the value, The mean apparent place of Beta Arietis for is listed with right ascension of 1 h 54 m 33 s Gamma Arietis, , has right ascension of about 1. Precession in latitude is near zero and held as zero here: Next, I subtract out the elapsed general precession since BC, in right ascension 0.

    This section demonstrated sound estimations, these uniformly indicating the amount of precession in longitude, at the vernal equinox, to be west one full zodiac sign, i. As shown in arguments, the general precession can be broken down into its equatorial coordinate components, some Arguments also afford calculation to dates somewhat earlier or later than BC. General precession, calculated from BC to present, is The invention's incremental adjustment is necessary on Western, Eastern and Chinese astrology positions, dates of signs, syndicated and reference data, and for any artifacts, systems or apparatuses.

    In the means to this point, the inventor used where required the date, BC, as the date at which the vernal equinox was fixed as Aries 0 degrees by Western, tropical, astrology; this is the date when Hipparchus is to have finished his star catalogue. But, to begin to construct a star catalogue, the origin of the mapping system needed be first set, and as this is the vernal equinox, so, another valid and appropriate date to select for calculations is at the beginning of his cataloguing, by BC.

    From BC to the new millennium AD, is years. Arguments the new millennium begins AD, is years. Further, arguments for BC project years as year AD. Next, is measured the number of years time, required to equal thirty degrees of elapsed precession, as from that full measure of one sign, the vernal equinox is marked thenceforth, Aquarius, and continues on at that time from Aquarius 30 degrees. In ecliptic and in equatorial coordinate systems, the rate for general precession, 0. Starting the new millennium we enter the Age of Aquarius! This approximated value can be divided by the annual rate of precession in right ascension, 0.

    This shows that at BC, the star, Gamma Arietis, was physically observable as accurately marking the vernal equinox. As a confirming proof that both the star based means and the numerical means are reasonably robust, it is collaborated that the Thus, using a physical basis, here being the star, Gamma Arietis, which marked the vernal equinox at BC, a full 30 degrees precession is shown having elapsed by the new millennium. Using a non-grid basis, Pisces marks the vernal equinox. These two means, star and non-grid, can also set the coordinate system's origin.

    To this point, several means have been provided by which the origin of the celestial mapping system and astrological positions can be determined. Second, Newcomb's constant for precession in longitude per tropical year was used Third, it was determined by calculation of elapsed general precession over that period; fourth, by adding precession in right ascension and declination, fifth, by transform between equatorial and ecliptic coordinates. A means used the rate for general precession 0. Next, precise current position of Mesarthim Gamma Arietis was used to determined the historical date at which it was the exact marker of the vernal equinox, being before BC.

    Finally, using the physically observable zodiac stars in constellation, as determinable from the two-dimensional reproduction found herein, it was shown that the point of the vernal equinox, is in Pisces. All of these means are valid bases for precisely setting the origin of the celestial mapping system, and in turn, for naming the positions of any astrological planetary and axial component, of Sun signs and calendar dates, of lunar animal signs, of ascendants by hour, and for all astrological data, information and artifacts, including of horoscopes and subject dispositions.

    Now, the essential consequence of these varied means for the determination of the origin concern the date when the sign on the vernal equinox changes from Pisces to Aquarius, and here, the user is advised to select the date from among the various choices which most suits their preferences or convictions. The various means presented herein do not otherwise ostensibly effect results found in the positions, signs, horoscopes and dispositions, since all data from these means are within one degree of each other.

    Thus, the core mean prevails and is repeatedly confirmed: To conclude this section on the invention's technical means, several further means are detailed which can determine a precise setting of the coordinate mapping system's origin based on the date of the change from the Age of Pisces to the Age of Aquarius. Determining a full thirty degrees gives:. This date, of AD, is accepted as significant to spiritualists, mystics and believers, many of who prognosticate that the Messiah appears in this year.

    Others, particularly those who consider the admonitions and cosmic progression as revealed in the Apocalypse or Nostrodamus, may aver that before the Messiah appears, a phase of destruction and judgment occurs. To determine the accurate date of the era of destruction, a unique means using a physical star basis is given.

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    Acknowledged as one of the preeminent Rosicrucian alchemists of his millennium, the Comte St. The reference to the Leg is that of the Great Man Aquarius. Know that place sign or symbol, probably a zodiacal constellation, ed. To determine that future date:. Thus, there is one millennium to come before the end of the ages. Mystics talk of a thousand years of peace to rein on Earth; this is in time. Ptolemy, in his Tetrabiblios, relates his astrological facts regarding the unique stars within each different constellation along the ecliptic's belt.

    Under the IAU constellation mappings, the constellation Aquarius begins at This concludes the section detailing means for determining the zodiac sign to degree on the mapping systems' equinox origin. The Book of Houses then follows below. At bottom, Lists of extracted Planetary Component Data, stated for longitude and latitude, with the data for the Moon reduced from the Greenwich noon data, and of Axial Component Data.

    The device of FIG. The drawing shows the Composition of two unique Astrological Tarot Decks. The drawing in FIG. The Systems can be directly linked to Home Page and to each other. The present invention relates to methods, processes, systems and apparatuses for determining the signs under which a person is born, and for pluralities of subjects, by determining the zodiac positions for Sun signs and planetary and axial components within the constellations, as of a selected date and as annual sets of dates throughout time, as novel zodiac component data; processing the innovative zodiac component data into astrologers' artifacts; and utilizing such unique data and artifacts to predict, reveal, comment, interpret and entertain the astrological character of the subject s , as based on the data of zodiac signs and components.

    The invention's locating methods and celestial mapping systems determine the positions of the twelve zodiac signs, and the positions of the zodiac components based thereon, respective the zodiac constellations. It is astrological practice to use an ecliptic coordinate system. With work and insight we probe deeply down into our past, with the goal of extending all the way back towards conception. Indeed, we could say that childhood is our personal unconscious, in a Jungian sense that it contains all memories of our early life of which we tend to remain unaware, and gestation, those experiences we receive while in the womb, correspond to the collective unconscious, the archetypal psychic patterns we share with all humanity.

    This correlation is further enhanced by understanding that during gestation we start as a fertilised ovum, and develop through the entire evolutionary process of life on this planet, leaving traces in our brain, bodily organs and systems, and our physiology itself. This spiral echoes the original spiral of the solar system, and reinforces the idea that our life is a process in time, a progression from the bounds of the biological to personality development in childhood, to the mental world of adulthood.

    But there is another dimension available to us. There is a transcendent or transpersonal octave, within which we create a spiritual body. Transcendence is the higher octave of Gestation, and is a knowing and experiential return to the collective unconscious, to the womb of the mother, to the mystery of male-female relationship, but on a higher level. Indeed, this fourth dimension is the culmination and synthesis of the entire process of life and our goal in achieving unity with the world.

    In recent years the metaphor of the resonance between the spiralling solar system and the DNA molecule is becoming more and more relevant. The sequencing of the four base pairs of DNA to discover the function of genes is done using triplets, called codons , which is a similar process to the triune sequences of planetary influences in the horoscope. It might even be that in using and working with such three-point combinations we are discovering an astrological equivalent of decoding the very genes of life.

    See The Theory of Celestial Influence in the note below. The revolutionary concept of the morphogenetic field postulated by the biologist Rupert Sheldrake in A New Science of Life: Tad Mann has a B. Arch from Cornell University and has been an astrologer since He writes online reports for tarot.

    He lives in New York. CC0 Creative Commons, via pixabay. The Astrological Association is a registered charity dedicated to the support and promotion of astrology in all its branches. For over fifty years, it has been serving the astrological community through informing and bringing together astrologers from all over the world, via its stable of publications, its annual Conference, Kepler Research Day and other occasional events, and its support of local astrological groups.

    It also represents the interests of astrologers generally, responding when appropriate to issues raised within the media. The first book available in English by the great French master astrologer Andre Barbault. The Value of Astrology offers incisive, captivating insights into the origins, classical tradition and modern uses of astrology.

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    It not only contains birth data, but also all the chart drawings and thousands of biographies. AstroWiki by Astrodienst is a free encyclopedia of astrology. It collects the knowledge of the astrological community and makes it available to everybody. As one of the largest astrology portals WWW. COM offers a lot of free features on the subject. With high-quality horoscope interpretations by the world's leading astrologers Liz Greene, Robert Hand and other authors, many free horoscopes and extensive information on astrology for beginners and professionals, www.

    Chart of the moment.