- War of the Spanish Succession
- War of the Spanish Succession - Wikipedia
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Be sure to keep ALL medications in your carry-on bag during your trip in case your suit case should be lost. Also bring enough medication for several additional days in case you should get delayed upon your return. Keep a separate list of important numbers, i. The same common-sense rules of safety and security apply here as to anywhere else: Avoid excessive displays of jewelry or cash only carry sufficient for daily needs Use room safes or leave items with the hotel manager Make certain that any valuables are insured against theft Avoid exploration on your own of unfamiliar streets or areas Be especially cautious if gypsies approach you begging.
Be advised that traveler's insurance can not be purchased after you have paid in full for your trip. For those who have purchased Travelers Insurance through us, a pamphlet will be included in your final documents. Please refer to this brochure for specific stipulations or questions. For more information you can also visit http: Transportation is by private motor coach: Some days may include only short transfers on the bus from your hotel to a resturant, or similar.
Other days you may drive a couple of hours to travel from one city to another. Make sure to bring along a credit card for convenience and security. Credit cards offer a very reasonable exchange rate and can be cancelled should it be lost. We recommend that you exchange US dollars USD at your local bank prior to departure if possible, in order to obtain the best exchange rate.
ATMs are readily available in most of the destinations we service, and are very similar to those in USA. Most offer English as a language option. It is recommended that you contact your local bank and credit card companies before departing on your trip to advise them that you will be traveling. Traveler's checks are NOT reccommended, as they are often not accepted and are difficult to exchange during the trip.
Be advised that exchanging money at airports will result in higher fees. We strongly recommend that you refrain from exchanging money at your hotel or local change booths, as the fees are extremely high. We are frequently asked, "How much money should I bring with me? The type of lunches you prefer can make a big difference restaurant vs cafe. Are you planning on purchasing mementos for yourself or loved ones? Remember, you can always spend less, or bring money home! Keep in mind that this is the "pure" exchange rate, any form of currency exchange has some fees associated. For up to date currency exchange rates please visit www.
Please note that the currency flocculation has been particularly volatile in the last year, so we strongly urge you to check the current exchange rates prior to departure and prior to exchange.
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ATM machines can be found at most bank branches, post offices, train stations, airports, shopping centers, etc. Most banks charge a commission when you withdraw money, especially if it is from the network of another bank. You should ask your bank for information about where you can use your card and what commissions are charged for withdrawing money. Your bank will utilize an exchange rate that is a couple percent above the "true" exchange rate. You can also get cash advances on your credit card at an ATM.
Credit card companies try to protect themselves from theft by limiting the funds someone can withdraw outside their home country, so call your credit card company before you leave home. And keep in mind that you'll pay interest from the moment of your withdrawal, even if you pay your monthly bills on time.
At retail stores, this tax is always already included in the price. Do not pack these gift items in your luggage. They should be kept in your hand luggage. By the way, tourist services, such as hotel accommodations and meals taken in hotels, paid with foreign currency are exempt from VAT tax. You must be over 15 years old, and you must present a passport. For additional information on the VAT refund http: All refunds are processed at the final point of departure from the E.
Mark the paperwork to request that your refund be applied to your credit card so you aren't stuck with a check in Euros. Even if you made the purchase in cash, you can still get the refund on a credit card. This ensures the best rate of exchange. You can get cash in some airports, but if you don't take the cash in Euros, you'll lose money on the transaction. If you're considering a major purchase, ask the store policy before you get too involved -- or be willing to waive your right to the refund. The metric system is used exclusively through out Europe.
A kilogram equals 2. Most of Europe operates on a 24 hour clock. This means that 6: Tips are an important part of earnings for your guides and bus drivers. It is suggested to provide the tour escort and the bus driver their tip money the day prior to your return. Gift or donation to the Spiritual Director is at your own discretion.
Restaurants, hotel staff, luggage handler and bell boy tips are included in your package price. No additional tips should be given. Rooms may be smaller than you are used to based on European standards. Mini-bar items and access to pay TV channels are at your own expense. Fixtures in bathrooms and bedrooms are not standardized. While most hotels do offer a hair dryer in the bathroom, we recommend bring one if it is essential to you. Most hotels provide toiletries shampoo, lotion , we strongly recommend that you bring an adequate supply with you.
Please note that while we do request non-smoking rooms for our clients, hotels are less stringent about enforcing these rules outside of the USA. Remember to frequently check your hotel bulletin board for important information, suggestions, or any last-minute changes from your tour escort. The voltage used is volts AC, single phase 50 cycles the U.
Unless you use a good quality electric current converter, the heavier voltage will instantly burn out any electrical equipment you wish to use abroad. Before leaving home, you will need to purchase an international adapter so your two-prong plug will connect to the various local electrical supply outlets check that it is sufficiently powerful for your appliance , and a converter to convert the volts to volts. Buying electrical devices in foreign places is not recommended unless you are sure that the current they use is compatible with the current at home.
It will likely cost you more than the original price to have an appliance converted. You may bring your cellular phone, but make sure to contact your wireless phone provider and inform them, that you will be traveling out of the country giving them destinations. Most have an "international plan" if not get one for the trip. This will allow you to make calls to the United States while you are out of the country using your wireless phone.
If you have a smart phone with a data plan please make sure to contact your cellular provider to inquire about an international data plan. International data usage can be VERY expensive. We suggest you get a generous plan or disable your data while traveling. A Magnificat book has been provided to you for daily prayer and reflection.
Please note you can now download the Magnificat App to your smartphone. However it will require international data consumption so make sure you have an international data plan prior to departure with your provider. This will be at your additional cost with your mobile provider. While telephones offer convenience, they do tend to cost substantially more than public phones.
Finding a coin-operated telephone in Europe is an arduous task.
A local call costs one unit, which provides you 6 to 18 minutes of conversation, depending on the rate. Avoid making calls from your hotel, which might double or triple the charges. To make a direct international call, first dial 00, listen for the tone, and then slowly dial the country code, the area code, and the local number. The country code for the U. A reasonable way to communicate. Known as WC, and available in most tourist locations.
Be prepared with tissues in your pocket at all times. Also, be aware that some public toilets are staffed by attendants who ask for a small "user's fee".
War of the Spanish Succession
If you are bringing a digital camera, make sure to bring extra batteries. If not digital, remember to bring plenty of film or speed is recommended for outdoor and indoor-flash photography. Photography is not allowed in some museums and in some security-conscious facilities. Europe is based on a myriad of old buildings, and there are split-levels and uneven surfaces everywhere; please watch your step! Due to the structure of old buildings, access to some establishments may not be convenient for wheelchair use, and facilities for the disabled in general may be limited.
Many areas are pedestrian only and have cobblestones. High-heeled shoes are not suitable for cobblestone streets; rubber-soled walking shoes are recommended. Many streets in Europe are narrow, and due to strict traffic regulations, the buses are not always permitted to drop groups off directly in front for their destination. Please be prepared to walk. Be wary of any person approaching you offering unofficial taxi services. If you do not have an airport transfer included and you need transportation, make your way to the official taxi desk or to the regular taxi line outside the terminal; choose only those vehicles with a meter and a taxi sign.
We recommend you pre-negotiate the fare, as taxi drivers in some countries may attempt to overcharge unwary travelers. Lisbon is the capital of Portugal. Portugal is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. Madrid is the capital of Spain. Spain is bordered bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the northwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.
Paris is the capital of France. A different way of life in some countries on tour may take you by surprise, but if you travel with an open mind and respect local customs and culture, you should find it easier to adapt to and enjoy your new surroundings. Standards of living may not be quite what you are used to, but there are compensations — a closer sense of reality and a more authentic feeling of locale. Due to cultural differences in Europe you may not be greeted quite as cheerfully as back home; smiling is generally reserved for intimate friends!
Department stores are open Mon-Sat 9: Some shops close Food shops open 7: Some food shops particularly bakers open Sunday mornings, in which case they will probably close Monday. Many shops close all day Monday or Monday afternoon. Hypermarkets are normally open until 9: Most stores and businesses are closed on Sundays through out Europe. Many stores in Europe are also closed from sundown on Saturdays.
Stores are open daily from Monday to Saturday. Some observe a "siesta" from 1pm to 4pm, re-opening until 7pm. Some malls close later in the day and are open Saturdays after sundown. Paris is known for fashion, Venice is known for hand blown glass, Santiago de Compostela for the pilgrim shell, etc. Enjoy some stress-free Christmas shopping during your travels; small, light items that you can easily carry home make splendid and festive gifts. Sales tax or VAT value added tax is already included on price tags; VAT refunds, if applicable, may sometimes take up to three months to process.
Whenever traveling abroad, be aware of your personal belongings when shopping in crowded areas. It's a good idea to retain the receipts from your purchases should they be requested by a Customs Inspector upon your return to the United States. For details visit the U. Customs and Border Protection website http: It is a free service to allow U. For 24 Hour Consular Emergency Line: Most European countries tend to dine later than we are accustom to.
Please expect that your dinners will be scheduled around 7: Most breakfasts are buffet style. Unlike in the USA, it is frowned upon to take food out of the breakfast room. Most dinners will be served "sit down" with a pre-determined 3 or 4 course meal.
War of the Spanish Succession - Wikipedia
Your meals include iced tap water and coffee or tea. All other beverages, including bottled water, will be at additional cost. While some restaurants may be able to provide for a special diet, such as vegetarian or salt-free, there is no way for us to guarantee this. Please note, vegetarian meals tend to lack variety and imagination. Check with your tour guide or concierge for a list of good restaurants. Food is generally safe to eat. Should you want to feel "at home", many American franchises now operate in Europe: Due to differences in mineral and micro-biotic levels, we recommend that you avoid consuming local tap water including ice , as it may upset your stomach.
Due to global weather changes, regional temperatures may deviate from the norms. We recommend layered, easy care, loose-fitting clothing, an item or two for rain or unseasonable temperatures and something warmer. Medium-weights for winter with heavier clothing for inland areas. It is a good idea to pack waterproof clothing at any time of year.
Wear a sunhat and loose-fitting clothing, drink at least one liter one quart of mineral water a day if you can carry a small bottle in your hand luggage ; avoid eating too much ice-cream and reduce the amount of ice in drinks. A small battery-operated fan may be useful in warm weather. English is widely spoken, and many signs appear in English too. All foreign non-European nationals need a valid passport to enter Europe. For an up-to-date country-by-country listing of passport requirements around the world, go to the "Foreign Entry Requirements" page of the U.
State Department website at http: Please note that for most European travel your passport MUST be valid for 6 months after your scheduled return date. If you enter Europe under the Visa Waiver Program, you are not allowed to take up any employment there. The vast majority in Britain now supported war and after William's death on 19 March , Queen Anne announced the continuation of his policies ie ensuring the Protestant succession and resisting French expansion.
The importance of trade and economic interests to the participants is often under estimated; contemporaries viewed Dutch and English support for the Habsburg cause as primarily driven by a desire for access to the Spanish American markets. Modern economics generally assumes a constantly growing market whereas the then dominant theory of Mercantilism viewed it as static.
As a result, increasing your share of trade implied taking it from someone else, with the government's role being to restrict foreign competition. On 6 September , France banned the import of English manufactured goods like cloth and imposed prohibitive duties on a wide range of others. Reliance on the local countryside for resupply limited operations in poor areas like Northern Spain; these factors confined campaigns to the same general areas. Britain England and Scotland pre Alignment on reducing the power of France and securing the Protestant succession masked differences on how to achieve them.
In general, the Tories favoured a mercantilist strategy of using the Royal Navy to attack French and Spanish trade while protecting and expanding their own; land commitments were viewed as expensive and primarily of benefit to others. Britain's financial strength made it the only member of the Alliance able to operate on all fronts against France. Dutch Republic The Dutch provided much of the manpower for the campaigns in the Low Countries; while Marlborough was accepted as the Allied commander, in the early years strategy in that theatre was subject to their approval.
Dutch priorities were to re-stablish and strengthen the Barrier fortresses, retain control of the Scheldt estuary and gain access to trade in the Spanish Empire. Austria traditionally relied on England and the Dutch Republic for naval support while putting Archduke Charles on the Spanish throne was not an explicit objective. The crucial campaign in Spain was reliant on the Maritime Powers and also a higher priority for them.
By formalising religious divisions within the Empire, the Peace of Westphalia weakened its integrity and by , the larger German states were pursuing their own policies.
Early Kongo-Portuguese Relations: A New Interpretation
Its geographical position provided enormous tactical flexibility, unlike Austria it had its own navy and as the campaigns of proved, even under severe pressure it could defend its borders. The Nine Years War had shown France could not impose its objectives without support but the alliance with Spain and Bavaria made a successful outcome far more likely. Apart from denying an undivided Spanish Monarchy to others, Louis' objectives were to secure his borders with Germany, weaken Austria and increase French commercial strength by access to the Americas trade.
Spain Their key objective was as far as possible to preserve an undivided and independent Monarchy. During the 17th century, a series of wars with France drained military and financial resources, with the economy subject to long periods of low productivity and depression. The Duchy was strategically important as it provided access to the southern borders of Austria and France.
Victor Amadeus II allied with France in but his long-term goal was the acquisition of Milan; neither France, Austria or Spain would relinquish this voluntarily, leaving Britain as the only power that could. After the Royal Navy established control over the Western Mediterranean in , Savoy changed sides. The war was fought over the Spanish-ruled Duchies of Milan and Mantua in Northern Italy considered essential to the security of Austria's southern borders. Despite a minor French victory at Castiglione , the war in Italy was over; the Convention of Milan in March confirmed Austria's control of Milan and Mantua, with French troops given free passage back to France for redeployment elsewhere.
An attack by forces from Italy on the French base of Toulon was planned for but was postponed when 10, Imperial troops were diverted in June to seize the Spanish Bourbon Kingdom of Naples. On the Upper Rhine , Imperial forces under Louis of Baden remained on the defensive, although they took Landau in Allied victory at Blenheim on 13 August forced Bavaria out of the war and the Treaty of Ilbersheim placed it under Austrian rule.
Allied efforts to exploit their victory in foundered on poor co-ordination, tactical disputes and command rivalries, while Leopold's ruthless rule in Bavaria caused a brief but vicious peasant revolt. This eliminated French offensive capabilities for the rest of the war but despite taking key strongpoints like Lille , the Allies were unable to make a decisive breach in the French frontiers. An internal revolt in early led to the temporary loss of parts of the Spanish Netherlands; this was restored by victory at Oudenarde in July but the overall position remained largely unchanged from Victory in Spain was vital if Archduke Charles were to win the throne but the Habsburgs viewed Northern Italy and suppressing the Hungarian revolt as higher priorities.
Anglo-Dutch involvement was driven by the mercantilist strategy of securing trade in the Mediterranean and gaining commercial access to the Spanish Empire. This made Spain more important to the Dutch and English than Austria and dependent on their support, a conflict that was never really solved.
Majorca, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia declared for Philip in while a mixture of anti-Castilian and anti-French sentiment meant those on the Spanish mainland generally supported Archduke Charles but this simplifies a very complex reality. In June , the 'Pact of Genoa' between Catalan representatives and England opened a second front in the north-east; the loss of Barcelona and Valencia left Toulon as the only major port available to the Bourbons in the Western Mediterranean.
The Allies could not be resupplied so far from their bases and had to withdraw; by November, Philip controlled Castile, Murcia and parts of Valencia. Attempts to regain the initiative in ended with Allied defeats at Almansa in April and Toulon in August, once again restricting Archduke Charles to Catalonia.
The British capture of Menorca in combined with possession of Gibraltar gave them control of the Western Mediterranean. By the end of , British objectives had largely been achieved, Portugal and the Dutch Republic were financially exhausted while Austria refused to commit significant resources to putting Charles on the throne of Spain. By the end of , the war had reached stalemate; the French had withdrawn from Northern Italy, with Austria gaining the Spanish possessions of Milan and Naples.
However, France's frontiers remained largely intact while the Grand Alliance had been unable to make any lasting progress in Spain, where Philip proved to be far more popular with the Spanish than the Austrian candidate Archduke Charles. Many of the objectives originally set out by the Grand Alliance in had been achieved but the victories of made them overconfident, resulting in the continuation of a war most participants wanted to end but could not. France opened informal discussions with the Dutch in , viewing them as the most likely to favour a quick end to the war.
Defeat at Ramillies increased this possibility by removing a direct military threat to the Dutch Republic and highlighting differences within the Alliance on the future of the Spanish Netherlands. The winter of in Europe was one of the coldest on record, with widespread crop failures and famine exacerbated in France and Spain by a British naval blockade of grain imports. The French re-opened talks and in May , the Allies presented the terms known as the Preliminaries of Hague; they included the demand Philip cede his throne to Archduke Charles without compensation and France assist in his removal by force if this was not done within two months.
Marlborough now launched an offensive in Northern France which led to the Battle of Malplaquet on 11 September between an Allied army of 86, and a French of 75, Victory cost the Allies over 20, casualties, demonstrated the fighting ability of the French army remained intact and increased war-weariness both in Britain and the Dutch Republic, who suffered heavy losses.
Lack of progress accentuated the reality that the Allies no longer shared clear objectives, highlighted by Dutch exclusion from an agreement between Britain and Archduke Charles for trading rights in Spanish America. The British government compensated with the First Barrier Treaty ; this gave the Dutch effective control of the Spanish Netherlands but was seen as detrimental to British commerce and increased domestic opposition.
The Whigs had won the British general election by arguing military victory was the quickest road to peace but failure in France was followed by the same in Spain.
In , victories at Almenar and Saragossa enabled Archduke Charles to re-enter Madrid but he was again forced to retreat; by December, the Allies controlled only Catalonia after defeats at Brihuega and Villaviciosa. Whig policy had clearly failed and aided by the Sacheverell riots , the pro-peace Tories won a landslide victory in the election.
Negotiations resumed in March at Geertruidenberg but broke down due to the continued insistence France expel Philip by force if he refused to abdicate. The new British government confirmed its commitment to the war to prevent a credit crisis and reassure its Allies; despite the capture of Bouchain in September, decisive victory in Northern France continued to elude the Allies while an expedition against Quebec in French North America ended in disaster.
The purpose of continuing the war was unclear, since union of Spain with Austria was as unwelcome as one with France and as the Tory propagandist Jonathan Swift pointed out, the Treaty made no reference to removing Philip.
The British secretly negotiated peace terms directly with France leading to the signing of the Preliminary Articles of London on 8 October Despite their annoyance at being excluded from the Anglo-French negotiations, the Dutch were financially exhausted by the enormous cost of the war and could not continue without British support. Charles VI rejected the idea of a peace conference; once the Dutch agreed to support it, he reluctantly agreed rather than be isolated but Habsburg opposition to the Treaty continued. Within weeks of the conference opening, events threatened the basis of the peace agreed between Britain and France.
First, the French presented proposals awarding the Spanish Netherlands to Max Emmanuel of Bavaria and a minimal Barrier, leaving the Dutch with little to show for their huge investment of money and men.
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Second, a series of deaths left Louis XIV's two year old great-grandson, the future Louis XV as heir, making Philip next in line and his immediate renunciation imperative. The Dutch and Austrians fought on, hoping to improve their negotiating position but the British government issued 'Restraining Orders' to Marlborough's replacement, the Duke of Ormonde , instructing him not to participate in offensive operations against the French. On 6 June, Philip had announced his renunciation of the French throne; the British Tory government now offered the Dutch a revised Barrier Treaty , replacing that of which they rejected as overly generous.
It was a significant improvement on the Barrier but ultimately subject to Austrian approval and the final terms were less beneficial. Fighting continued on the Rhine but Austria was financially exhausted and after the loss of Landau and Freiburg in November , Charles came to terms. The Peace of Utrecht stipulated that "because of the great danger which threatened the liberty and safety of all Europe, from the too close conjunction of the kingdoms of Spain and France, [ Britain is usually seen as the main beneficiary, Utrecht marking the beginning of its rise to commercial domination of Europe.
Britain ended the war as the largest naval power in the world; France accepted the Protestant succession, ensuring a smooth inheritance by George I in August and ended their support for the Stuarts by the terms of Anglo-French Treaty. Spain retained its independence, the majority of its Empire and Philip was confirmed as King but in return, ceded the Spanish Netherlands and most of their Italian possessions to Austria, Sicily to Savoy and Gibraltar and Menorca to Britain. The Nueva Planta decrees transferred powers to Madrid and largely abolished regional political structures.
Despite Charles' failure in Spain, Austria secured its position in Italy and Hungary while also acquiring the bulk of the Spanish Netherlands. While finances remained an enduring weakness of the devolved Habsburg state, even after reimbursing most of the expenses associated with the Dutch Barrier, the increased tax revenues helped fund a significant expansion of Austrian military forces.
After this effectively meant Britain; only the Royal Navy prevented Spain recapturing Sicily in and the Kingdom of Naples was lost for good in The historian Robert A. Kann claims the negative consequences of the war for Austria must be laid largely at the door of Charles VI's personal failings, in particular his excessive dynastic pride that overrode all other considerations.
This included Austria's involvement in peripheral conflicts like the War of the Polish Succession , where most of the fighting actually took place on Austrian territory. Their hold over the Empire continued to weaken, with Bavaria, Hanover, Prussia and Saxony pursuing their own policies; in , Charles of Bavaria became the first non-Habsburg Emperor in over years. The huge effort made by the Dutch Republic meant it ended the war in effectively bankrupt, while the protection of the Barrier Treaty that had cost so much proved largely illusory.
Louis XIV died on 1 September , with his five-year-old great-grandson reigning as Louis XV until ; on his deathbed, he is alleged to have admitted 'I have loved war too well. France remained strong but could not maintain its former dominance, particularly in relation to Britain; concern over this relative decline in military and economic terms was an underlying cause of the War of the Austrian Succession. Wider implications include the beginning of the rise of Prussia and Savoy while many of the participants were involved in the the Great Northern War , with Russia becoming a European power for the first time as a result.
Finally, while colonial conflicts were relatively minor and largely confined to the North American theatre or the so-called Queen Anne's War , they were to become a key element in future wars. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. War of the Spanish Succession: West Indies and South America. The War of the Spanish Succession Kindle ed.
Pen and Sword Military. The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession: An Historical and Critical Dictionary. The Cambridge Modern History ed. The Habsburg Monarchy, — ed. Philip V of Spain: The King Who Reigned Twice. Queen Anne; the Politics of Passion.
Dutch Primacy in World Trade, ed. Louis XIV ed. Good summary of the concept. Retrieved 7 April Journal for Eighteenth Century Studies.